ectopic pregnancy

In the intricate dance of conception and pregnancy, every step is critical. But when a step goes awry, as happens in around 1% of pregnancies in the UK, the outcome is an ectopic pregnancy.

Ectopic pregnancy is a serious medical condition where the pregnancy develops outside the womb, most often in the fallopian tube, and it’s unable to progress normally. For those who’ve had a previous ectopic pregnancy, the risk factor increases notably.

Due to the potential health risks they present, awareness of the symptoms and readiness to seek emergency care is vital. So, in this article we will arm you with knowledge of this critical health issue.

What is an ectopic pregnancy?

An ectopic pregnancy is a complication that arises when a fertilised egg implants outside the womb. This typically occurs in one of the fallopian tubes. Due to its location, the egg cannot develop into a healthy baby, and the situation becomes life-threatening for the mother. The growing egg could cause the fallopian tube to burst, leading to severe internal bleeding.

Women usually experience symptoms of ectopic pregnancy between weeks 4 and 12. However, some women will not experience any symptoms, so it would only show up on an early scan. The most common symptoms are:

  • Missing a period – even without a positive pregnancy test
  • Vaginal bleeding – this may be irregular, dark brown and watery
  • Tummy pain – typically low down on one side
  • Diarrhoea or discomfort on the toilet
  • Shoulder tip pain

If the ectopic pregnancy grows large enough to split the fallopian tube, it can result in rupture. Signs of a rupture include sharp intense stomach pain, feeling faint, dizzy or nauseous. This is a medical emergency requiring immediate treatment.

What causes it?

Ectopic pregnancies are most caused by conditions that hamper the progress of the fertilised egg through the fallopian tube to the uterus. Factors such as inflammation or infection of the tube, hormonal factors, genetic abnormalities, and certain medical conditions, can contribute to its development.

A recent study highlights the dangers of this condition. It remains the leading cause of maternal death in early pregnancy. Alarmingly, the study highlighted significant disparities in maternal mortality rates associated with ectopic pregnancy amongst women from different ethnic backgrounds. The mortality rate is over three times higher in Black women, and nearly double in Asian women, compared to their white counterparts.

The study also emphasises that young and vulnerable women are overrepresented in ectopic pregnancy-related deaths. There are indications that better care could have possibly prevented these tragedies.

The findings highlight an urgent need for improved awareness about symptoms amongst both healthcare professionals, and the public, to facilitate early detection and intervention.

How is it treated?

Treatment for an ectopic pregnancy varies depending on the situation. If it is detected early, and the fallopian tube has not ruptured, medication may be administered to stop the egg’s growth. In cases where the tube has ruptured, emergency surgery is required to remove the ectopic tissue and stop the bleeding. In some cases, the affected fallopian tube may also need to be removed.

Early detection through awareness and timely medical consultation, significantly reduces the risk associated with this condition.

Ultrasound scans are typically used to detect an ectopic pregnancy. Call our friendly team today on 0121 308 7774 to book an ultrasound scan and see how your pregnancy is developing.

Smear Test

The week of June 19 – 24, 2023 is Cervical Screening Awareness week, making it the perfect time to shine a spotlight on the importance of smear testing. Despite how crucial smear tests are for our health, 1 in 4 women in the UK admit to skipping them.

We recognise that fear or uncertainty might be driving this. To help address these concerns, we’ll be tackling the most frequently raised issues about smear tests in this useful blog.

What is a Smear Test?

A smear test, also known as a cervical screening test or Pap smear, plays a crucial role in the early detection of cervical cancer. It works by collecting cells from your cervix – the ‘neck’ of your womb – and checking them for abnormalities. These cellular changes can signal the presence of the human papillomavirus (HPV), which can sometimes lead to cervical cancer.

Does a Smear Test hurt?

While each person’s experience varies, the smear test is usually not painful. It may cause some mild discomfort, like period cramps. However, if you feel any significant pain, you should inform the healthcare provider immediately.

Why is a Smear Test important?

The significance of a smear test cannot be overstated. This simple procedure is one of the most effective tools we have for the prevention and early detection of cervical cancer. Early detection is key as it drastically increases the effectiveness of treatment and significantly improves the chances of a full recovery.

Cervical cancer is often linked to the Human Papillomavirus (HPV), which can cause abnormal changes in the cells of the cervix. A smear test helps identify these cellular changes before they develop into cancer. It’s crucial to understand that a smear test is not a test for cancer, but a test to catch precancerous changes, which, if left untreated, could potentially lead to cancer.

How often do I need a Smear Test?

The frequency of smear tests depends on your age and previous test results, but generally, it’s recommended every 3 to 5 years. Always follow your healthcare provider’s advice regarding the frequency of screening, as it may vary based on individual health circumstances.

How should I prepare for a Smear?

Preparing for a smear test is relatively straightforward. Try to schedule your appointment mid-cycle when you are not menstruating. On the day of the test, avoid douching, using tampons, or applying vaginal medications, creams, foams, or jellies for at least 48 hours prior as they can affect the results. Relax and remember that this is a routine procedure that plays a key role in preventive healthcare.

Awareness about cervical screening and its benefits is a stepping stone towards a healthier life. Make no mistake; the few minutes it takes to undergo a smear test can quite literally save your life. This Cervical Screening Awareness Week let’s put our health in the front seat and prioritise preventative measures like smear tests.

If you’ve been delaying your cervical screening, now is the time to act. Here at SureScan, we’re committed to providing a comfortable, supportive environment for your smear test. Book your cervical cancer screening with us today. It’s a simple step, but one that can provide you with peace of mind and contribute significantly to your wellbeing.

breech presentations

A recent study has revealed how an unacceptably high occurrence of missed breech presentations could be improved. Researchers suggest that providing all expectant mothers with a third-trimester ultrasound scan could significantly decrease the occurrence of undiagnosed breech presentations by over two-thirds.

Featured in PLOS Medicine, the research highlights that breech presentations at term have a 3-4% prevalence, with breech vaginal deliveries correlating to heightened perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality.

When expectant mothers are informed of a breech presentation, they can effectively weigh the pros and cons of their choices. Here we look at what the latest study found and why third trimester ultrasound could prove essential for expectant mothers.

Current level of missed breech presentations is unacceptable

The latest study was carried out by the Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, alongside the St George’s University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust in London. It revealed the rates of overlooked breech or non-cephalic presentations are alarmingly high. Also, the current clinical examination methods fail to provide sufficient accuracy in determining foetal presentation.

For instance, abdominal palpation exhibits a meagre sensitivity of 50-70%. To assess the effectiveness of reducing undiagnosed term breech presentations, the research team compared pre- and post-screening periods. They did this by examining the implementation of policies involving routine third-trimester ultrasound performed by sonographers (at St. George’s) or point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) conducted by trained midwives using handheld devices (at Norwich).

A third trimester scan could drastically reduce undiagnosed breech

One of the most substantial findings of the study was that the percentage of undetected term breech presentations significantly decreased after introducing routine third-trimester ultrasound scans. The rate dropped from 14.2% to 2.8% with sonographer-perform ultrasounds, and from 16.2% to 3.5% with POCUS.

The research used Bayesian regression analysis, which showed a 71% reduction in undiagnosed breech presentations after implementing universal ultrasound policies. This result had a probability of more than 99.9%.

It also revealed a reduction in emergency C-sections from 12.9% to 11.5% after introducing screening policies. However, elective C-section rates slightly increased during this period (from 12.0% to 13.0%).

The findings showed improvements in short-term perinatal outcomes for pregnancies with diagnosed breech presentations at term. These improvements included a decrease in low Apgar scores (less than 7 at 5 minutes), hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, unexpected neonatal unit admissions, and extended perinatal mortality rates.

UK lacking skilled providers for breech births

While research indicates that pregnant women may opt for planned breech vaginal births, a significant number of maternity units in the UK lack the expertise to facilitate these deliveries.

Early detection of breech presentation would allow expectant mothers to make informed decisions and enjoy more positive birthing experiences.

One of the main challenges of implementing routine third-trimester scan policies is the associated costs. However, a review by the National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment proposes that handheld portable ultrasounds could bridge this gap as an affordable alternative. These devices would allow antenatal care providers, such as midwives, to detect foetal presentations with minimal training.

While the NHS doesn’t currently offer third semester presentation scans, there are alternatives. SureScan provides a presentation scan after 36 weeks to provide reassurance that your baby is developing exactly as they should.

Risk Factors for Endometriosis

A recent study into endometriosis found that the genes related to this condition also connect to nearly 12 other painful problems, like migraines. This discovery might help researchers learn more about what causes the disease and find new ways to treat it.

According to Endometriosis UK, around 1.5 million women across the country suffer with this painful and debilitating condition. It is often misdiagnosed and can take years for patients to receive the help they need. So, let’s look at what the study found and why it’s a big deal.

Latest study reveals genetic risk factors of Endometriosis

A new study carried out by the University of Queensland in Australia, alongside the University of Oxford, compared the DNA of 60,000 women with endometriosis to 700,000 women without it. This study is the biggest of its kind.

In the past, scientists have linked its risk factors to conditions with similar symptoms, like depression and stomach issues. This new research has also found a connection between certain genes related to endometriosis and other painful or inflammation-related conditions such as migraines, chronic back pain, asthma, and osteoarthritis.

These results can help future studies focus more on what these specific genes do. This would in turn develop a deeper understanding which could help in the creation of new treatments for endometriosis.

What is Endometriosis?

Endometriosis is a common, inflammatory illness characterised by the growth of tissue resembling the uterus lining, outside of the uterus. Chronic pain in the pelvic region is the most common symptom of this disease, although it can also cause digestive and urinary problems, as well as ongoing fatigue.

The root cause of endometriosis isn’t fully understood, but early research suggests that genetics may play a significant role. While up to 50% of cases appear to be hereditary, only a small number of genetic risk factors have been discovered up until this latest study.

Current Endometriosis treatments

Unfortunately, there is no known cure for endometriosis right now, and managing its symptoms can be challenging. The objective of treatment is to alleviate symptoms to enable normal daily activities.

While endometriosis may sometimes improve without intervention, it can worsen without treatment. The treatment options vary and include pain relievers, hormone therapies, and surgical interventions.

At SureScan, our knowledgeable and friendly experts offer specialised diagnostic imaging services to detect endometriosis. We also provide professional guidance and treatment advice to those who are affected by the condition. Book a consultation today with one of our expert gynaecologists.

ovarian cysts

Ovarian cysts are fluid-filled sacs that develop either within or on an ovary’s surface. These cysts come in various types, with the majority being benign, asymptomatic, and resolving spontaneously without treatment over several months.

Their size can vary from a few centimetres to more than a foot in length. Many women will experience ovarian cysts at some point in their lives and although they are often harmless, causing minimal or no discomfort, some may twist or rupture, leading to potentially serious issues.

To safeguard your health, it is essential to undergo regular pelvic examinations and be aware of the symptoms that could indicate potential complications. Here, we look at the most common types of ovarian cysts, and how they are diagnosed.

Understanding the Different Types of Ovarian Cysts

There are different types of cysts you may experience, with some being more worrisome than others. Let’s look at the most common types of cysts you may develop.

Functional Cysts

Functional cysts are the most common type of ovarian cysts. They form naturally during a woman’s reproductive years due to the menstrual cycle. When small follicles in the ovaries continue to grow and retain fluid after menstruation, they become functional cysts.

These cysts are almost always harmless and tend to shrink and disappear on their own within four to eight weeks.

Endometriotic Cysts

Endometriotic cysts form in those who suffer with endometriosis. As tissue accumulates due to hormonal fluctuations during the menstrual cycle, dark reddish-brown cysts, known as ‘chocolate cysts’, develop.

These cysts usually do not resolve spontaneously and can cause pelvic pain, adhesions, and infertility if they rupture.

Benign Neoplastic Cysts

Benign neoplastic cysts, while rare, can present in various forms and are characterised by abnormal tissue growth. Cystic teratomas, or dermoid cysts, are the most common type, containing different tissues such as sebaceous glands, skin cells, or hair follicles.

These cysts may not cause symptoms but can sometimes lead to medical complications and pelvic pain, and they typically do not resolve on their own.

What complications can arise from ovarian cysts?

While most cysts are benign, any type of cyst can become malignant or cancerous, indicating ovarian cancer. Malignant cysts are suspected based on certain characteristics observed during physical exams, ultrasounds, or in a patient’s medical history. In these cases, a biopsy or complete removal of the cyst is recommended.

Ovarian cyst ruptures are relatively common. They can sometimes be painless and go unnoticed, but they may also cause sudden lower abdominal pain, typically on one side of the body. This pain often begins during physical activity, which leads to the cyst’s rupture.

Ruptured cysts often require no treatment beyond pain medication and observation, but surgical intervention may be necessary if blood pressure becomes unstable or bleeding continues.

Ovarian torsion is another complication that can occur. This can happen when the cysts grow large enough to cause the ovary to twist out of its natural position, partially or fully cutting off the blood supply. Symptoms of ovarian torsion are acute and sudden, including lower abdominal pain (often unilateral), nausea, or vomiting. This condition is among the most common gynaecological emergencies and requires surgical intervention for correction.

At SureScan, our gynaecology scans are performed by highly skilled consultants with extensive experience in both the NHS and private sectors. Schedule a scan with one of our friendly and experienced experts today.

gonorrhoea

A significant rise in gonorrhoea cases has led to a warning from public health specialists, who urge the use of condoms and regular testing for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The increase in England since the COVID pandemic is concerning, with the UK Health Security Agency (UKHSA) reporting a 21% jump in diagnoses between January and September 2022, compared to the same period in 2019.

So, what is gonorrhoea and why are public health specialists concerned about the rise in cases? Find out everything you need to know in this informative blog.

What is gonorrhoea?

Gonorrhoea results from an infection brought about by a bacterium transmitted through sexual contact, impacting both men and women. This condition typically occurs in the urethra, rectum, or throat, while in women, it can also affect the cervix.

The primary modes of gonorrhoea transmission include vaginal, oral, or anal intercourse. Worryingly, infants can also contract the infection from their mothers during the birthing process, with the eyes being the most susceptible area for new-borns.

To effectively safeguard against sexually transmitted infections, it’s crucial to use protection such as condoms during sexual activity.

Symptoms of gonorrhoea

Often, gonorrhoea infections don’t present any noticeable symptoms. However, when they do occur, they typically manifest in the genital region.

For men, symptoms may involve discomfort during urination, a pus-like discharge from the penis, and pain or swelling in one testicle. In women, the signs of gonorrhoea infection can include an increase in vaginal discharge, pain during urination, irregular vaginal bleeding after intercourse, and discomfort in the abdominal or pelvic area.

Testing for gonorrhoea

In recent years, there have been instances of gonorrhoea with resistance to ceftriaxone, the primary antibiotic used to treat the infection. This has mainly occurred in individuals in their twenties.

Prioritising sexual health is crucial when maintaining or beginning a new intimate relationship. The most prevalent sexually transmitted infections include chlamydia and gonorrhoea, with one in six individuals affected. When left undetected and untreated, these infections can lead to severe complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancies, or infertility.

Undergoing testing a minimum of once per year, irrespective of the presence of symptoms, can aid in reducing the likelihood of contracting or transmitting STIs during sexual activity. Postponing appropriate care and treatment may result in the development of long-term issues that become increasingly challenging to resolve.

At SureScan, we provide comprehensive sexual health testing, guidance, and treatment options. These tests are carried out by professional consultant gynaecologists, ensuring the highest level of confidentiality and quality care.

Book a sexual health test now to help protect yourself against common STIs such as gonorrhoea. If an STI is discovered, you will be able to receive immediate treatment to eradicate the condition.

HRT prescriptions

A new HRT prescriptions scheme to provide improved access to menopause support in England is set to benefit around 400,000 women. It aims to make treatment options more accessible, as well as help patients save potentially hundreds of pounds. This move will ensure that women can receive the care and attention they need during this important, and often traumatic life transition.

Here, we take a closer look at the new scheme, and how menopausal check-ups can help women to manage the symptoms of menopause.

What is the HRT prescriptions scheme?

Starting on April 1, 2023, a new scheme will be introduced in England to make menopause treatment more affordable. Women who are prescribed Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT), will be able to access a year’s worth of HRT prescription items for the cost of two single prescription charges. This currently amounts to just £18.70.

The scheme, known as the Prescription Prepayment Certificate (PPC), is part of the government’s commitment to reducing the cost of HRT for women during the menopause. The PPC will be valid for 12 months and can be used against a list of HRT prescription items including patches, tablets, and topical preparations. There will be no limit to the number of times the certificate can be used while it is valid.

In addition to reducing the cost of HRT prescriptions, the government is also working with suppliers to encourage and support them in meeting the growing demand for menopause treatment. These steps are being taken to improve access to HRT for women, ensuring they can receive the care they need during this important stage of life.

How many women are prescribed HRT?

Approximately 15% of women aged 45 to 64 in England are currently prescribed hormone replacement therapy (HRT). This percentage has risen rapidly over the past two years, up from around 11%.

Due to growing demand, an HRT Task Force made recommendations to the government, which have now been accepted. These recommendations included encouraging and supporting manufacturers to boost supply, and to issue serious shortage protocols (SSPs) when necessary to ensure that distribution is evened out. This will involve dispensing alternative products as needed and reducing the need for patients to return to their GP.

Undergoing a menopause check

At SureScan, we are committed to providing women with the support they need during the menopause. That’s why we offer a comprehensive menopause health check that we recommend women attend at least once a year.

Our menopause health check involves a consultation with one of our expert Consultant Gynaecologists. They can perform a wide range of health checks including, but not limited to, blood pressure checks, abdominal and pelvic examinations, advice on hormone replacement therapy (HRT), blood tests, and ovarian and cervical screening. We believe that these health checks are essential for women to maintain good health and well-being.

If you’re interested in finding out more about our menopause health check or booking an appointment, don’t hesitate to get in touch with us today. We are here to support you every step of the way.

Bacterial vaginosis

Research has shown that a significant proportion of women will contract one or more strains of the human Papillomavirus (HPV) during their lifetime. Estimated figures suggest that as many as four in five women will contract the virus, with around 5% of those infected going on to develop precancerous lesions in the cervix.

Recent studies have highlighted the role of vaginal flora in persistent HPV infections. They suggest that the composition of the vaginal microbiome may play a key role in determining whether an HPV infection clears up or persists. They also suggest that certain bacterial species potentially influence the immune response to the virus.

Understanding the relationship between vaginal flora and HPV is vital. It could help provide new ways to prevent the development of precancerous lesions and cervical cancer in high-risk populations. So, what is bacterial vaginosis and how is it treated?

What is bacterial vaginosis?

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common condition that affects the vaginal microbiome in women. It is caused by an imbalance of the naturally occurring bacteria in the vagina, where there is a decrease in lactobacilli (the good bacteria) and an increase in harmful bacteria.

The exact cause of bacterial vaginosis is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to changes in hormonal levels, and sexual activity. The condition is more common in women who are sexually active, but it can occur in those who are not.

Bacterial vaginosis doesn’t always produce symptoms. However, when symptoms do occur, they may include an abnormal vaginal discharge, which may be thin, grey, or white in colour, accompanied by a fishy odour. Some women may also experience vaginal itching, burning, or pain during urination.

How can I treat bacterial vaginosis?

Treatment for bacterial vaginosis typically involves antibiotics. This can be administered in the form of oral tablets, or as a cream or gel applied directly into the vagina. It is important to inform your doctor or nurse if you might be pregnant, or are currently breastfeeding. This information can impact the type of treatment you receive.

The importance of regular testing

Regular testing for bacterial vaginosis is important as it doesn’t always cause any noticeable symptoms. As a result, many women may be unaware that they have the condition and may not seek treatment until complications arise.

Routine testing can help to identify bacterial vaginosis early on, which can prevent the development of more serious complications. These include pelvic inflammatory disease, and sexually transmitted infections. Testing can also help to distinguish bacterial vaginosis from other conditions that may have similar symptoms, such as STIs.

At SureScan, we offer routine gynaecological scans in a friendly, relaxing environment. All scans are carried out by gynaecology consultants who have years of experience in both the NHS and private sector. To book a gynaecological scan, contact our friendly team today.

More Pregnancy scans

On the NHS, pregnant women receive two pregnancy scans – one at around 12 weeks and the other after 20 weeks. However, experts are now claiming women should receive additional pregnancy scans to help avoid emergency C-sections and trauma.

While some midwives argue that additional scans simply cause unnecessary stress, most experts agree that they can be crucial in helping to detect complications and birth defects early.

What are the benefits of undergoing additional pregnancy scans?

Having more than two pregnancy scans can offer several benefits. They give you the opportunity to check that the foetus is growing as it should, and that there are no potential issues that need to be addressed. This doesn’t just give you reassurance, it also helps to treat or prepare for any problems early.

Additional scans can check for abnormalities such as congenital heart disease, or neural tube defects. They can also pick up conditions such as Down’s syndrome.

Early scans can also help to detect multiple pregnancies such as twins or triplets and give you a better idea of your due date.

Can I get another pregnancy scan?

Right now, pregnant women are only given extra scans on the NHS if they are deemed a high-risk. This includes those who have high blood pressure, or diabetes. So, does that mean you can’t get additional scans?

The good news is you can undergo additional scans through a private clinic. Here at SureScan, we provide several additional scans including reassurance and presentation scans.

Reassurance scans

Reassurance scans can be carried out any time after the six week mark. As the name suggests, they are designed to give you reassurance that the pregnancy is progressing as it should. They can be especially helpful for women who have suffered previous miscarriages or fertility issues.

A reassurance scan can be carried out through the abdomen, or as a trans-vaginal ultrasound depending upon how far along you are in the pregnancy. You will get to see your baby, as well as receive a diagnostic report including foetal measurements.

Presentation scans

Presentation scans are carried out later in the pregnancy, typically after the 36-week mark. They aim to show the position of the baby, as well as how much amniotic fluid is present, and the position of the placenta.

This type of scan isn’t usually carried out unless it is recommended by a midwife. It is mostly for women who are at a high risk of a breech birth. The scan is presented in 4D, and you can request to have the baby’s measurements provided in a report.

Undergoing additional scans can give you peace of mind, as well as detect and prevent serious complications. To book one of our thorough pregnancy scans, get in touch with our friendly team today by calling 0121 308 7774.

Early menopause

Menopause typically occurs between the ages of 45 to 55, but did you know it can also develop prematurely?

Early menopause can affect women in their 20s or 30s, and sometimes even begin during the teen years. Its symptoms can be just as difficult to live with, and is leading campaigners to call for more awareness in the workplace, including menopause leave.

So, what causes early menopause? Learn everything you need to know in this post.

What is early menopause?

Early menopause refers to the onset of menopause before the age of 40. It is a result of the depletion of ovarian follicles and reduced oestrogen production, which leads to menstrual irregularities and infertility.

Women often experience symptoms similar to those of natural menopause, such as hot flushes and mood changes. Here’s a list of the most common symptoms you may experience:

  • Irregular periods or complete cessation of menstrual cycles
  • Hot flushes and night sweats
  • Low sexual desire
  • Vaginal dryness
  • Mood swings
  • Difficulty sleeping
  • Joint pain
  • Fatigue
  • Memory problems
  • Increased risk of osteoporosis

It’s important to note that not all women will experience all the above symptoms, and the severity can vary.

What causes early menopause?

The exact cause of early menopause can be difficult to determine. However, some of the known causes include surgery, cancer treatments, and ovary failure. Let’s take a deeper look into each of these causes…

Ovary removal surgery

Removal of both ovaries through surgery will induce premature or early menopause. This can occur, for instance, as a result of ovary removal during a hysterectomy procedure (surgical removal of the uterus).

Cancer treatments

If you undergo cancer treatment, there is an increased risk of triggering the early menopause. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy may result in premature ovarian failure, which can either be permanent or temporary. The likelihood of experiencing early menopause is influenced by:

  • Age: Younger girls who have yet to reach puberty have a higher tolerance for stronger cancer treatments compared to older women.
  • Type of treatment: Different chemotherapy treatments can have varying effects on the ovaries.
  • Location of radiotherapy: A greater risk of premature menopause is associated with radiotherapy around the brain or pelvis.

Ovary failure

The most common cause of the early menopause is when a woman’s ovaries naturally fail to produce adequate levels of hormones, particularly oestrogen. This is also referred to as premature ovarian failure or primary ovarian insufficiency.

The cause of premature ovarian failure is often unknown; however, it may be due to:

  • Chromosome abnormalities: such as in women with Turner syndrome
  • Autoimmune diseases: where the immune system attacks body tissues
  • Rare infections: such as tuberculosis, malaria, and mumps

A family history (in the 20s or early 30s) may indicate a genetic predisposition to premature ovarian failure.

Diagnosing early menopause

If you are worried you may be experiencing early menopause, your GP will be able to make a diagnosis based upon your symptoms, family history, and by carrying out blood tests. There are treatments available to help ease the symptoms, and improve your chances of conceiving.

If you would like a menopausal health check with a specialist gynaecology consultant, or if you would like to talk about your fertility options, book a consultation by calling our friendly reception team today.